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need help with bonding?

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Topic starter
Active Member
Joined: 3 years ago

I keep getting mixed up with bonding and don't know the differences between them, plus I don't know what the structures are and what giant ionic means. can someone pls help me out? literally don't have a clue

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So there's intramolecular bonding (bonding within a molecule) and then there's intermolecular bonding (between molecules).

There are 3 types of intramolecular bonding:

  1. Ionic: between metals and non-metals
  2. Covalent: between non-metals
  3. Metallic: within a metal

There are 3 types of intermolecular bonding:

  1. Permanent dipole-dipole: exists between polar molecules 
  2. Hydrogen bonding: this is a special case of permanent dipole-dipole forces and you need to fulfill the following criteria: have O-H, N-H or F-H bond in one molecule + have a lone pair of electrons on O, N or F atom on the neighbouring molecule
  3. Van der Waal's (also called London forces/dispersion forces): this exists between ALL atoms and molecules (including noble gases)

For structures, you have the following:

  1. Giant ionic lattice structures: anything that has ionic bonding e.g. NaCl has this structure because the ions are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern
  2. Giant covalent structures/macromolecules: includes allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, graphene, buckminsterfullerenes) and silicon dioxide; these again need to have a regular, repeating pattern and they have a large number of covalent bonds 
  3. Metallic lattice: in metals
  4. Simple molecular structure: small molecules e.g. O2, NH3, H2O, CH4


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